BOLD Myocardial Imaging: Advances for Clinical and Physiological Applications

Sanjit Peter, Garth M. Beache*
Department of Radiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, USA

© 2012 Peter and Beache

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Radiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 530 South Jackson Street, Louisville, KY 40202, Kentucky, USA; Tel: (502) 852-2113; Fax: (502) 852-1754; E-mail:


Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) imaging is firmly established as a powerful tool for clinical and research studies in the brain. Though, borrowing from the brain methodology, the technique was early adapted for the heart, due to artifacts unique to myocardial imaging; cardiac and respiratory motion, flow and blood pool effects, and magnetic susceptibility effects arising from the adjacent lungs and bowel, and from the veins at the surface of the heart, cardiac application has largely been limited to research groups. In this paper we aim to focus on these factors affecting ease and reliability of BOLD myocardial imaging, and highlight advances which have the potential to make this methodology more widely accessible to clinical- and physiology- based practioners who may have an interest in exploring this area in collaboration with technical magnetic resonance imaging colleagues

Keywords: BOLD, myocardium, coronary artery disease, metabolic syndrome, endothelium, magnetic resonance imaging.